Democratic progress during a global decline

According to Freedom House’s Freedom in the World Report, 2018 was the 13th year in a row showing an overall decline in global freedom and democracy. Despite this, Angola, who is classified as ‘Not Free’, increased by 5 points from 2017, making them the country with the 4th largest one-year gain in 2018. Alongside this, Angola was deemed by Transparency International in this year’s Corruption Perceptions Index as a country to watch in Sub-Saharan Africa due to their continued positive progression since 2015.

Over the past one and a half years, Angola has undergone a dramatic change, highlighted by their recent increases in global democracy and corruption measuring indices. In 2017, after 38 years in power, the Angolan president, José Eduardo dos Santos, stepped down from power before elections. Dos Santos’ party successor, João Lourenço, won the elections and took over as President in September 2017. Since coming into power, Lourenço has initiated a number of unprecedented reforms and cracked down on corruption in the country. Over 2018, these reforms have been accompanied by an increasing openness in Angolan society surrounding democracy, governance and human rights. The media, especially, has enjoyed increased freedom and openness to report on sensitive issues such as corruption and human rights. This can most notably be demonstrated by President Lourenço’s meeting with, long-time critic of the government and journalist, Rafael Marques de Morais in December 2018.[1]

Lourenço’s reforms have been widespread, ranging from boosting investment in the oil sector, promoting diversification in the economy, to firing government officials for corruption, including the former president’s daughter and son. Furthermore, in 2018, the Angolan government launched their first ever national strategy for human rights. The National Human Rights Strategy is a guiding document that aims to frame the actions of the Government of Angola in the human rights field. The strategy recognises and acknowledges the main challenges and constraints of human rights in Angola, noting the widespread lack of knowledge on human rights norms and related legislation by the general population. Furthermore, it takes on board the lack of realisation of human rights related to health, education, access to land and housing, freedom of assembly and expression, and freedom of the press, whilst proposing a mid-term strategy for improving the human rights situation in Angola. The main objectives highlighted include the promotion of human rights education, increased dialogue between government and civil society, promotion of freedom of expression, association and the press, and the promotion of gender equality.

Despite these positive actions, Angola remains a country marred by widespread corruption (Angola scored 19 out of 100 in the 2018 CPI) and is still classified as ‘Not Free’ on the Freedom in the World report. Inequality is high, the mean income per person is $3,110 despite almost two thirds of the population living on less than $3.10 a day and child and maternal mortality rates are among the world’s highest. Angola still has a long way to go, but the recent positive progress they have made should not be ignored, especially when global trends are showing a decline in democracy and freedom in most other places. Looking forward to 2019, Angola is due to conduct their third cycle of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR). The UPR Review is a state-driven process under the UN Human Rights Council that takes place every four years, providing states with the opportunity to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and what they plan to do in the next four years. The UPR in 2019 will provide an opportunity for both the government and civil society to voice their opinions and/or concerns on the human rights situation in Angola and formulate a plan for the next four years, in line with the new national human rights strategy.

When discussing Sub-Saharan Africa as a region, the Freedom in the World report highlights both Angola and Ethiopia for the reforms their new Presidents have committed to, stating that “if the new administrations are able to dismantle the repressive legal and political frameworks they inherited, they may serve as important models for their neighbors and significantly improve the democratic trajectory of the continent as a whole”. As a further example, on January 23rd 2019, Angola became the 23rd country in Africa to decriminalise homosexuality and outlaw discrimination against someone on the grounds of their sexual identity and/or orientation. Angola are certainly beginning the year with a very positive step forward.

[1] Rafael Marques de Morais is an Angolan journalist, political activist, and head of the anti-corruption watchdog Maka Angola. He is a major critic of the Angolan government and has previously been arrested and charged with defamation for articles he has written regarding the Angolan government under President José Eduardo dos Santos.

Author: Hannah Hills


Freedom in the World 2019

According to Freedom House’s Freedom in the World Report 2019, released last week, 2018 was the 13th year in a row showing an overall decline in global freedom and democracy. Despite this, Angola, who is classified as ‘Not Free’, increased by 5 points from 2017, making them the country with the 4th largest one-year gains in 2018.

Freedom in the World (FIW) is an annual global report on political rights and civil liberties covering 195 countries and 14 territories and comprises of numerical ratings and descriptive texts for each. The report is regarded as one of the leading global metrics for measuring democracy and freedom across the globe and is one of the most widely read rankings on human rights.

Freedom house uses in-house and external analysts and expert advisors to review each country on a yearly basis to prepare reports and assign scores. The analysis is based on news articles, academic analyses, NGO reports, individual professional contacts, and on-the-ground research. FIW assesses the real-world rights and freedoms that individuals enjoy, rather than analysing governments or government performance, therefore focussing on the implementation of rights in practice in each country.

The report ranks countries and territories as either Free, Partly Free or Not Free. There are 10 political rights indicators and 15 civil liberties indicators covering categories such as electoral process, functioning of government, freedom of expression and belief to rule of law and personal autonomy and individual rights. Each indicator receives a score from 0-4 whereby 0 equals the least amount of freedom and 4 equals the most amount freedom. Each country is then assigned a rating for political rights and one for civil liberties between 1 and 7 (1 represents most free, 7 represents least free) which are then averaged in order to calculate the country’s overall Freedom Rating determining the country’s status as either Free (1.0-2.5), Partly Free (3.0-5.0), or Not Free (5.5-7.0).

The 2019 FIW report highlights a downward trend in freedom and democracy globally since 2005. The surge of progress that was witnessed in the wake of the end of the cold war – whereby between 1988 and 2005 the percentage of countries ranked as not free decreased from 37 to 23 percent and the number of free countries grew from 36 to 46 percent – has begun to decline. Since 2005, the percentage of not free countries has risen to 26% and free countries declined to 44%. In 2018, every region, apart from the Asia-Pacific, received a lower average score than they did in 2005.

Despite this downward trend, more countries in 2018 made net improvements compared with 2017 and there were overall a smaller number of net declines. Ethiopia, Malaysia, Armenia, Angola, The Gambia, and Ecuador were the top six countries with score gains in 2018, and all have in common the emergence of a new leader/change in government and the introduction of reforms in response to demands for change from the public.

The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is another global measurement tool, focussing on perceived levels of corruption in the public sector. Published by Transparency International, the CPI measures the perceived levels of public sector corruption in 180 countries or territories using surveys of business people and expert assessments. Each country/territory then receives a score between 0 and 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clean.

Similar to the results from FIW 2019, the 2018 CPI also found that the vast majority of countries are not making progress in the fight against corruption, highlighting that only 20 countries have made significant progress in recent years. The CPI, which was released one-week prior to the FIW report, notes the important link between corruption and democracy, which was further reinforced by the release of the FIW and its 2018 rankings. Both indices show that increased corruption/lack of controls on corruption have a negative effect on democracy. The CPI and FIW results highlight a vicious cycle whereby corruption undermines democratic institutions which in turn results in weak institutions unable to keep a check on corruption.

To read the full reports, please go to:

FIW 2019

CPI 2018

More information on the methodologies used can be found at:

Freedom in the World Report

Corruption Perceptions Index

Author: Hannah Hills